Top Controversial photo manipulation throughout the history!!!!

Is it only photo manipulation or memory and history manipulation?:

Who and why???

Image manipulation is an application of image editing technique to create deception or illusion after the photograph has been taken. When anyone mention the term “Photo Manipulation” the first thing comes to our mind is a computer based software called Photoshop. It seems this software have introduced the term “Photo Manipulation” to us. But history tells us the story on photo manipulation from 1860!!!!!.

(ref: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2107109/Iconic-Abraham-Lincoln-portrait-revealed-TWO-pictures-stitched-together.html)

Yes this was not only before the Photoshop but also before the history of computer too!!! I know what question is making your brain explode! because that happened to me too! How did they do it back then????

How did they do it???

In pre-digital era photo manipulation was all about retouching with paint, ink, double-exposure, combining  photo or negative in dark room, scratching Polaroids. Airbrushes(don’t mix with Photoshop airbrush tool) were used too. There are evidence of usage of other tools like gouache paint, kneaded erasers, charcoal sticks.

Retouche-set

With these they did it what we do it with Photoshop now!!!

Who did it and why??

When I studied the history of photo manipulation, I found that photo manipulation is almost as old as photography as it self! Which can be proved by authentic sources given bellow. And do you know  who are the 1st practitioners of this technique ?? They were the most renown politicians and state heads!!yes this technique was used for political issues. To manipulate history and memories!! Politicians like Abraham lincon, Joseph Stalin, Vladimir Lenin etc.

1.     Iconic Abraham Lincoln portrait revealed to be two pictures:

The most iconic picture of Abraham Lincoln that you have seen hanged on the wall of your class room is not real!! It is manipulated. Abraham never posed for that portrait! And this is the 1st history of photo manipulation till to day as it is claimed the photo is from 1860. This was made because there are no appropriate heroic style portrait of Lincoln during his life time.

abraham-lincoln-doctored-photoshopped-john-calhoun-body

 It was created by cutting-and-pasting a headshot of Lincoln taken from a photograph by Mathew Brady onto a portrait of the Southern leader John Calhoun (right). It was created by Eastman Dry Plate and Film Company (later to become Eastman Kodak).

2. General Ulysses. S. Grant on a Horse in front of Troops, circa 1864

This print purports to be of General Ulysses S. Grant in front of his troops at City Point, Virginia, during the American Civil War. Some very nice detective work by researchers at the Library of Congress revealed that this print is a compositeof three separate prints: (1) the head in this photo is taken from a portrait of Grant; (2) the horse and body are those of Major General Alexander M. McCook; and (3) the backgoround is of Confederate prisoners captured at the battle of Fisher’s Hill, VA.

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3. General Francis P. Blair Added to Photograph of General Sherman Posing with his Generals, circa 1865

In this photo by famed photographer Mathew Brady, General Sherman is seen posing with his Generals. General Francis P. Blair (far right) was added to the original photograph.

general-francis-p-blair-added-to-general-sherman-photograph-1 general-francis-p-blair-added-to-general-sherman-photograph-2

4. Stalin Airbrushes Out His Enemies, circa 1930

stalin-photoshop-doctored-airbrushed-out-enemy

Stalin was notorious for routinely airbrushing his enemies out of photographs. As people fell out of favor with Stalin, so to did their photographic identity. In this image we see a comissar removed after falling out of Stalin’s good graces.

5. Mao Tse-tung Removes Po Ku, 1936

mao-tse-tung-removes-po-ku-from-photo

 In this doctored photograph, Mao Tse-tung (right) had Po Ku (left) removed from the original photograph, After Po Ku fell out of favor with Mao.

6. Hitler Removes Joseph Goebbels, 1937

hitler-doctored-photoshop-airbrushes-removes-joseph-goebbles-1937

In this doctored photograph, Adolf Hitler had Joseph Goebbels (second from the right) removed from the originalphotograph. It remains unclear why exactly Goebbels fell out of favor with Hitler.

7. Canadian PM William Lyon Mackenzie King  Removes King George VI, 1939

canadian-prime-minister-removes-king-george-vi-from-photo-with-queen-for-political-poster-1939

Prime Minster of Canada, William Lyon Mackenzie King, removed King George VI from the original photograph with the PM alongside Queen Elizabeth. The photograph was used on an election poster for the Prime Minister, so the theory is that an image of just Mackenzie with the Queen put him in a more powerful light.

8. Benito Mussolini had the horse handler removed in 1942

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Benito Mussolini didn’t want to look like he needed help to atop a horse while he triumphantly raising a sword to air so he had to remove the horse handler from his photo in 1942.

9. Watch Removed from WWII Russian Flag Raising Photograph, 1945

The editor-in-chief of Russian Magazine Ogoniok, removed a soldier’s watch as they raised the soviet flag atop the German Reichstag building during WWII. The reason? If you look closely, the soldier has a watch on his other hand as well. This suggests that ‘looting’ may have occurred before this photo was taken.

raising-russian-flag-wwii-watch-removed-photoshop-doctored

10. Trotsky Vanishes In 1967

The most common examples of photograph alteration and falsification come from communist Russia. Unwanted persons, so-called “enemies of the people” were not only killed, but also removed from photographs where their presence was unwanted. Photographs were altered with the intent of changing the past.

Leon Trotsky was a close friend of Lenin, and shared his idealistic ideas about the communist state. In the following photographs he can be seen together with Lenin.

DIGITAL CAMERA Lenin-e-Trotsky

The next set of images are nearly identical, however Trotsky is removed from both photographs.Lenin-6 Lenin

11. Kent State Massacre Fencepost Removal, 1970

In this Pulitzer Prize winning photograph by John Filo, we see Mary Ann Vecchio screaming as she kneels over the body of student Jeffrey Miller at Kent State University. The Kent State Shootings occurred when National Guardsmen had fired into a crowd of demonstrators, killing four and wounding nine. The photo originally featured a visually distracting fencepost behind Mary Ann Vecchio’s head, but this was removed by an unknown photo editor in the early 1970’s. The modified photo then was published in Life magazine and other publications.

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